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To cite all versions of LEMLAT 3.0, you can adapt the following:

Marco Passarotti, Paolo Ruffolo, Flavio M. Cecchini, Eleonora Litta, Marco Budassi (2018) LEMLAT 3.0. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1492133

DOIs for the individual releases of LEMLAT 3.0 are available under DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1492133


LEMLAT is a morphological analyser and lemmatiser for Latin.

Developed in the early 1990s by Andrea Bozzi, Giuseppe Cappelli and Nino Marinone to lemmatise the Grammatici Latini texts, it was improved in 2002-2004 with the addition of morphological traits within the European project CHLT ('Cultural Heritage Language Technologies') by Marco Passarotti, Paolo Ruffolo and Andrea Bozzi at the ILC-CNR in Pisa. The lexical basis of the first version of LEMLAT is the result of the collation of three Latin dictionaries (Georges and Georges, 1913-1918; Glare, 1982; Gradenwitz, 1904). It counted 40,014 lexical entries and 43,432 lemmas.

A further upgrade to the lexical base of LEMLAT, known as LEMLAT3, was developed by the CIRCSE Research Centre at the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Milan; LEMLAT3 includes 26,250 lemmas from Forcellini's Onomasticon (1940) and 82,556 from Du Cange's Glossarium Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis (1883-1887). A Marie Curie (MSCA Individual Fellowship) funded project, Word Formation Latin, is currently working on establishing word formation relations between the lexical entries of LEMLAT’s BASE (Georges and Georges, 1913-1918; Glare, 1982; Gradenwitz, 1904) lexicon.


  • Passarotti, M., Budassi, M., Litta, E., Ruffolo, P. (2017) 'The Lemlat 3.0 Package for Morphological Analysis of Latin', Proceedings of the NoDaLiDa 2017 Workshop on Processing Historical Language 133: 24-31. Linköping University Electronic Press. http://www.ep.liu.se/ecp/article.asp?issue=133&article=006&volume=
  • Budassi, M., Litta, E., Passarotti, M. (2017) '-io Nouns through the Ages. Analysing Latin Morphological Productivity with Lemlat', Proceedings of the Fourth Italian Conference on Computational Linguistics (CLiC-it 2017), pp. 65-70. https://books.openedition.org/aaccademia/2366
  • Budassi, M., Passarotti, M. (2016) 'Nomen Omen. Enhancing the Latin Morphological Analyser Lemlat with an Onomasticon', Proceedings of the 10th SIGHUM Workshop on Language Technology for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, and Humanities. ACL, pp. 90-94. http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W16-2110
  • Passarotti, M. (2007) 'LEMLAT. Uno strumento per la lemmatizzazione morfologica automatica del latino', Journal of Latin Linguistics 9(3): 107-128. https://doi.org/10.1515/joll.2007.9.3.107
  • Passarotti, M. (2007) ‘LEMLAT. Uno strumento per la lemmatizzazione morfologica automatica del latino’, in Citti Francesco, Del Vecchio Tommaso (a cura di), From Manuscript to Digital Text. Problems of Interpretation and Markup. Proceedings of the Colloquium (Bologna, June 12th 2003), «Papers on Grammar», IX-3, Roma, Herder: 107-128.
  • Passarotti, M., Ruffolo, P. (2004) 'L'utilizzo del lemmatizzatore LEMLAT per una sistematizzazione dell'omografia in latino', Euphrosyne 32(A): 99-110. http://hdl.handle.net/10807/1389
  • Passarotti, M. (2004) ‘Development and perspectives of the Latin morphological analyser LEMLAT’, in Bozzi Andrea, Cignoni Laura, Lebrave Jean-Louis (a cura di), Digital Technology and Philological Disciplines, «Linguistica Computazionale», XX-XXI: 397-414. http://hdl.handle.net/10807/1391
  • Cappelli, G., Passarotti, M. (2003) 'LemLat: uno strumento computazionale per l'analisi linguistica del latino. Sviluppo e prospettive', Euphrosyne 31(A): 519-531. http://hdl.handle.net/10807/1386
  • Lomanto, V., Marinone, N. (1994) ‘Philologie et informatique: résultats et projets’, RISSH 30: 55-74.
  • Bozzi, A., Cappelli, G. (1990) ‘A Project for Latin Lexicography: 2. A Latin Morphological Analyzer’, Computers and the Humanities 24(5/6): 421–426. http://www.jstor.org/stable/30204177
  • Marinone, N. (1990) ‘A Project for Latin Lexicography: 1. Automatic Lemmatization and Word-List’, Computers and the Humanities 24(5/6): 417–420. http://www.jstor.org/stable/30204176
  • Marinone, N. (1990) ‘Lessico latino e analisi elettronica’, Voces I: 23-28. http://revistas.usal.es/index.php/1130-3336/article/view/5159